CPL - Chalmers Publication Library
| Utbildning | Forskning | Styrkeområden | Om Chalmers | In English In English Ej inloggad.

The Statistics of Emission and Detection of Neutrons and Photons

Andreas Enqvist (Institutionen för teknisk fysik, Nukleär teknik)
Göteborg2008. - 114 s.

One particular purpose of nuclear safeguards, in addition to accounting for known materials, is the detection, identifying and quantifying unknown material, to prevent accidental and clandestine transports and uses of nuclear materials. This can be achieved in a non-destructive way through the various physical and statistical properties of particle emission and detection from such materials. This thesis addresses some fundamental aspects of nuclear materials and the way they can be detected and quantified by such methods. Factorial moments or multiplicities have long been used within the safeguard area. These are low order moments of the underlying number distributions of emission and detection. One objective of the present work was to determine the full probability distribution and its dependence on the sample mass and the detection process. Derivation and analysis of the full probability distribution and its dependence on the above factors constitutes the first part of the thesis. Another possibility of identifying unknown samples lies in the information in the "fingerprints" (pulse shape distribution) left by a detected neutron or photon. A study of the statistical properties of the interaction of the incoming radiation (neutrons and photons) with the detectors constitutes the second part of the thesis. The interaction between fast neutrons and organic scintillation detectors is derived, and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. An experimental approach is also addressed in which cross correlation measurements were made using liquid scintillation detectors. First the dependence of the pulse height distribution on the energy and collision number of an incoming neutron was derived analytically and compared to numerical simulations. Then an algorithm was elaborated which can discriminate neutron pulses from photon pulses. The resulting cross correlation graphs are analyzed and discussed whether they can be used in applications to distinguish possible sample signatures to identify unknown nuclear materials.

Nyckelord: nuclear safeguards, Number distribution, multiplicities, fissile material, scintillation detectors, light pulse distribution, cross correlations

Denna post skapades 2009-09-28.
CPL Pubid: 99075