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# Simple General Recursion in Type Theory

Ana Bove (Institutionen för datavetenskap)
Nordic Journal of Computing Vol. 8 (2001), p. 22--42.

General recursive algorithms are such that the recursive calls are performed on arguments satisfying no condition that guarantees termination. Hence, there is no direct way of formalising them in type theory. The standard way of handling general recursion in type theory uses a well-founded recursion principle. Unfortunately, this way of formalising general recursive algorithms often produces unnecessarily long and complicated codes. On the other hand, functional programming languages like Haskell impose no restrictions on recursive programs, and then writing general recursive algorithms is straightforward. In addition, functional programs are usually short and self-explanatory. However, the existing frameworks for reasoning about the correctness of Haskell-like programs are weaker than the framework provided by type theory. The goal of this work is to present a method that combines the advantages of both programming styles when writing simple general recursive algorithms. The method introduced here separates the computational and logical parts of the definition of an algorithm, which has several advantages. First, the resulting type-theoretic algorithms are compact and easy to understand; they are as simple as their Haskell versions. Second, totality is now a separate task and hence, this method can also be used in the formalisation of partial functions. Third, the method presented here also simplifies the task of formal verification. Finally, it can easily be extended to treat nested and mutual recursion. The main feature of the method is the introduction of an inductive predicate, specially defined for the algorithm to be formalised. This predicate can be thought of as characterising the set of inputs for which the algorithm terminates. It contains an introduction rule for each of the cases that need to be considered and provides an easy syntactic condition that guarantees the termination of the algorithm.

Nyckelord: general recursion, type theory