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**Harvard**

Bylander, J., Duty, T. och Delsing, P. (2005) *Current measurement by real-time counting of single electrons*.

** BibTeX **

@article{

Bylander2005,

author={Bylander, Jonas and Duty, Tim and Delsing, Per},

title={Current measurement by real-time counting of single electrons},

journal={Nature},

issn={0028-0836},

volume={434},

issue={7031},

pages={361 - 364},

abstract={The fact that electrical current is carried by individual charges has been known for over 100 years, yet this discreteness has not been directly observed so far. Almost all current measurements involve measuring the voltage drop across a resistor, using Ohm's law, in which the discrete nature of charge does not come into play. However, by sending a direct current through a microelectronic circuit with a chain of islands connected by small tunnel junctions, the individual electrons can be observed one by one. The quantum mechanical tunnelling of single charges in this one-dimensional array is time correlated, and consequently the detected signal has the average frequency f = I/e, where I is the current and e is the electron charge. Here we report a direct observation of these time-correlated single-electron tunnelling oscillations, and show electron counting in the range 5 fA1 pA. This represents a fundamentally new way to measure extremely small currents, without offset or drift. Moreover, our current measurement, which is based on electron counting, is self-calibrated, as the measured frequency is related to the current only by a natural constant.},

year={2005},

keywords={current standard, single-electron, single-electron transistor, charge soliton, tunnelling},

}

** RefWorks **

RT Journal Article

SR Electronic

ID 3839

A1 Bylander, Jonas

A1 Duty, Tim

A1 Delsing, Per

T1 Current measurement by real-time counting of single electrons

YR 2005

JF Nature

SN 0028-0836

VO 434

IS 7031

SP 361

OP 364

AB The fact that electrical current is carried by individual charges has been known for over 100 years, yet this discreteness has not been directly observed so far. Almost all current measurements involve measuring the voltage drop across a resistor, using Ohm's law, in which the discrete nature of charge does not come into play. However, by sending a direct current through a microelectronic circuit with a chain of islands connected by small tunnel junctions, the individual electrons can be observed one by one. The quantum mechanical tunnelling of single charges in this one-dimensional array is time correlated, and consequently the detected signal has the average frequency f = I/e, where I is the current and e is the electron charge. Here we report a direct observation of these time-correlated single-electron tunnelling oscillations, and show electron counting in the range 5 fA1 pA. This represents a fundamentally new way to measure extremely small currents, without offset or drift. Moreover, our current measurement, which is based on electron counting, is self-calibrated, as the measured frequency is related to the current only by a natural constant.

LA eng

DO 10.1038/nature03375

LK http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0411420

OL 30