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Ground-based measurements of the 2014-2015 Holuhraun volcanic cloud

Melissa Pfeffer ; Baldur Bergsson ; Sara Barsotti ; Gerður Stefánsdóttir ; Bo Galle (Institutionen för rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Mikrovågs- och optisk fjärranalys) ; Santiago Arellano (Institutionen för rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Mikrovågs- och optisk fjärranalys) ; Vladimir Conde (Institutionen för rymd- och geovetenskap, Optisk fjärranalys) ; Amy Donovan ; Evgenia Ilyinskaya ; Mike Burton ; Alessandro Aiuppa ; Rachel Whitty ; Isla Simmons ; Þórður Arason ; Elín Jónasdóttir ; Nicole Keller ; Richard Yeo ; Hermann Arngrímsson ; Þorsteinn Jóhannsson ; Mary Butwin ; Robert Askew ; Stéphanie Dumont ; Sibylle von Löwis ; Þorgils Ingvarsson ; Alessandro La Spina ; Helen Thomas ; Fred Prata ; Fausto Grassa ; Gaetano Giudice ; Andri Stefánsson ; Frank Marzano ; Mario Montopoli ; Luigi Mereu
Geosciences (2076-3263). (2017)
[Artikel, refereegranskad vetenskaplig]

The 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga fissure eruption at Holuhraun was distinguished by high emission of gases, in total 9.6 Mt SO2, with almost no tephra. This work presents the ground-based measurements of this extraordinary eruption cloud made under particularly challenging conditions: remote location, optically dense plume with high SO2 column amounts, low UV intensity, frequent clouds and precipitation, an extensive and hot lava field, and developing ramparts which prevented a clear line of site to the main vent. Three scanning DOASes provided semi-continuous measurements that were augmented by car-mounted traverses along the ring-road and along the lava. The ratios of other gases/SO2 were measured by OP-FTIR, MultiGAS and Filterpacks. SO2/HCl = 30 – 110 and SO2/HF = 30 – 130 ratios show a halogen-poor eruption cloud. Scientists on-site reported extremely minor tephra production during the start of the eruption. OPC and filter packs showed low particle concentrations similar to non-eruption cloud conditions. Three weather radars detected a droplet-rich eruption cloud. Top of eruption cloud heights of 0.3 – 5.5 km agl were measured with ground- and aircraft-based visual observations, web camera and NICAIR2 infrared images, triangulation of scanning DOASes, and the location of SO2 peaks measured by DOAS traverses in conjunction with modeled winds. Plume height and emission rate measurements were critical for initializing gas dispersal simulations for hazard forecasting.

Accepted for publication.

Denna post skapades 2018-01-11.
CPL Pubid: 254420


Institutioner (Chalmers)

Institutionen för rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Mikrovågs- och optisk fjärranalys
Institutionen för rymd- och geovetenskap, Optisk fjärranalys (2010-2017)


Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap

Chalmers infrastruktur