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Discharges to the sea

Fredrik J. Lindgren (Institutionen för sjöfart och marin teknik, Maritim miljö och energisystem) ; Magda Wilewska-Bien (Institutionen för sjöfart och marin teknik, Maritim miljö och energisystem) ; Lena Granhag (Institutionen för sjöfart och marin teknik, Maritim miljö och energisystem) ; Karin Andersson (Institutionen för sjöfart och marin teknik) ; Karl Martin Eriksson (Institutionen för sjöfart och marin teknik, Maritim miljö och energisystem)
Shipping and the Environment: Improving Environmental Performance in Marine Transportation p. 125-168. (2016)

In this chapter, various environmental issues from the shipping industry which ends up in the oceans are described. Oil pollution, wastewater, antifouling paint, ballast water and litter are all described in detail. Various sources of oil pollution exist, ranging from large accidents to small continuous leakages from, e.g., propeller shaft bearings. The behaviour of oil when it enters the sea can differ, ultimately affecting the environment. Wastewater from ships is divided into sewage and grey water, and different regulations can affect their characteristics. Fouling on ship hulls affects the drag on the ship, which increases fuel consumption when maintaining a constant speed. The various antifouling paints used today to combat fouling are described herein, and a review of the environmental implications of using these paints is provided. Ballast water contains organisms that can become invasive if released into a new geographical area. Invasive species can entail costs on the order of millions of euros. Finally, litter is discussed in this chapter. Litter is deposited in the ocean via several sources and can affect organisms over long periods of time. Plastic causes the largest litter-related problem because it does not biodegrade; such material only becomes smaller, ultimately reaching a microplastic state. Henee, litter can affect organisms in different ways.

Nyckelord: Accidental spills, Antifouling, Ballast water, Fouling organisms, Invasive species, Litter, Oil pollution, Operational spills, Wastewater

Denna post skapades 2017-08-16. Senast ändrad 2017-09-14.
CPL Pubid: 251222


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Institutioner (Chalmers)

Institutionen för sjöfart och marin teknik, Maritim miljö och energisystem (2015-2017)
Institutionen för sjöfart och marin teknik (2005-2017)


Marin ekologi

Chalmers infrastruktur