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Radiation Detection Techniques for the Enhancement of Nuclear Safety

Petty Cartemo (Institutionen för teknisk fysik, Nukleär teknik)
Göteborg : Chalmers University of Technology, 2015. ISBN: 978-91-7597-244-2.- 80 s.
[Doktorsavhandling]

The hazard originating from the use of nuclear materials in various areas of the society necessitates a number of experimental techniques for controlling and increasing the safety connected to radioactive substances. The following thesis is divided into two parts, representing different aspects to the detection of radiation effects. The first part aims at investigating radiation-induced material damage of steel alloys that may potentially be used in future Generation IV systems. Concepts like the LFR or SFR will operate under higher temperature and radiation levels than present LWR and detailed knowledge on the material integrity under high level conditions is important for the performance of the major safety barrier and thus the safety of a nuclear power plant. Ion-irradiation is used to simulate neutron-induced damage and the microstructure of the samples is investigated with the help of Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy with the Chalmers Pulsed Positron Beam. A study regarding problems and challenges of ion-irradiation experiments is included. Additionally, depth profiling for the calibration of the measurement setup is performed. The second part aims at experimental and computational methods for purposes of Nuclear Safeguards and Emergency Preparedness, respectively. The chapter on safeguards measurements treats two of the major issues within the field, namely spent fuel and nuclear forensics. Firstly, an independent method for investigations of the boron content in a PWR fuel pool is presented, demonstrating how liquid scintillator detectors can be applied for estimations of the relative amount of neutrons absorbed in H and B. Secondly, HPGe measurements on strong Am-sources are performed for a qualitative analysis of inherent impurities to be used as signatures for the identification of unknown sources, helpful to forensic investigations. The chapter on Emergency Preparedness summarizes the computational work that was performed for simulations of source distributions in human phantoms. The IRINA voxel phantom is presented and Monte Carlo simulations for comparisons to the IGOR voxel phantom and the ICRP reference adult male voxel phantom are made for different distributions of Co and La in the human body.

Nyckelord: radiation-induced material damage; positron lifetime; pulsed beam; depth profiling; nuclear safeguards; orphan sources; Monte Carlo; voxel phantom; whole body counting


The thesis consists of three main topics, divided into two parts, that all deal with certain aspects of radiation. These three topics are Material Sciences (Part I), Nuclear Safeguards and Emergency Preparedness (Part II). Safeguards is a field of research that partly concentrates on detector technologies to help prevent the unauthorized spreading of fissile material. Thus, safeguards deals with the control of radiation! In order for radiation to be under control, it is necessary to understand the behavior of a material upon irradiation and whether its radiation resistance can be ensured despite certain property changes. If handled carelessly or if protective materials deteriorate, radiating sources can get out of control. Radiation protection and emergency preparedness measures are then needed to minimize the effects of environmental or internal contamination.



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Denna post skapades 2015-08-27. Senast ändrad 2015-09-11.
CPL Pubid: 221353

 

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Institutioner (Chalmers)

Institutionen för teknisk fysik, Nukleär teknik (2006-2015)

Ämnesområden

Energi
Materialvetenskap
Kärnfysik
Materialfysik med ytfysik
Radiofysik

Chalmers infrastruktur

Relaterade publikationer

Inkluderade delarbeten:


Testing a direct method for evaluating the concentration of boron in a fuel pool using scintillation detectors, and a 252Cf and an 241Am-Be source


Depth Profiling with the Chalmers Pulsed Positron Beam


Building a generic voxel phantom ofIRINA for Monte Carlo simulations


Characterization of strong <sup>241</sup>Am sources


Comparison of computational phantoms and investigation of the effect of biodistribution on activity estimations


Examination

Datum: 2015-10-02
Tid: 10:00
Lokal: PJ salen, Origo, Kemigården 1, Chalmers University of Technology
Opponent: Adj. Prof. Pål Efsing, Department of Solid Mechanics, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

Ingår i serie

Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny serie 3925


CTH-NT - Chalmers University of Technology, Nuclear Engineering 314