### Skapa referens, olika format (klipp och klistra)

**Harvard**

Kanekar, N., Ubachs, W., Menten, K., Bagdonaite, J., Brunthaler, A., Henkel, C., Muller, S., Bethlem, H. och Dapra, M. (2015) *Constraints on changes in the proton-electron mass ratio using methanol lines*.

** BibTeX **

@article{

Kanekar2015,

author={Kanekar, N. and Ubachs, W. and Menten, K. M. and Bagdonaite, J. and Brunthaler, A. and Henkel, C. and Muller, Sebastien and Bethlem, H. L. and Dapra, M.},

title={Constraints on changes in the proton-electron mass ratio using methanol lines},

journal={Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},

issn={0035-8711},

volume={448},

issue={1},

pages={L104-L108},

abstract={We report Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) absorption spectroscopy in four methanol (CH3OH) lines in the z = 0.885 82 gravitational lens towards PKS1830-211. Three of the four lines have very different sensitivity coefficients K-mu to changes in the proton-electron mass ratio mu; a comparison between the line redshifts thus allows us to test for temporal evolution in mu. We obtain a stringent statistical constraint on changes in mu by comparing the redshifted 12.179 and 60.531 GHz lines, [Delta mu/mu] <= 1.1 x 10(-7) (2 sigma) over 0 < z <= 0.885 82, a factor of approximate to 2.5 more sensitive than the best earlier results. However, the higher signal-to-noise ratio (by a factor of approximate to 2) of the VLA spectrum in the 12.179 GHz transition also indicates that this line has a different shape from that of the other three CH3OH lines (at >4 sigma significance). The sensitivity of the above result, and that of all earlier CH3OH studies, is thus likely to be limited by unknown systematic errors, probably arising due to the frequency-dependent structure of PKS1830-211. A robust result is obtained by combining the three lines at similar frequencies, 48.372, 48.377 and 60.531 GHz, whose line profiles are found to be in good agreement. This yields the 2 sigma constraint [Delta mu/mu] less than or similar to 4 x 10(-7), the most stringent current constraint on changes in mu. We thus find no evidence for changes in the proton-electron mass ratio over a lookback time of approximate to 7.5 Gyr.},

year={2015},

keywords={Atomic Processes, Galaxies, High-Redshift, PKS1830-211, Quasars, Absorption Lines, Fine-Structure Constant, Testing Fundamental Physics, Uves Large, Lens Pks 1830-211, Gravitational Lens, Molecular Absorption, Hyperfine-Structure, Time-Variation, Redshift, Hydrogen},

}

** RefWorks **

RT Journal Article

SR Electronic

ID 218290

A1 Kanekar, N.

A1 Ubachs, W.

A1 Menten, K. M.

A1 Bagdonaite, J.

A1 Brunthaler, A.

A1 Henkel, C.

A1 Muller, Sebastien

A1 Bethlem, H. L.

A1 Dapra, M.

T1 Constraints on changes in the proton-electron mass ratio using methanol lines

YR 2015

JF Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SN 0035-8711

VO 448

IS 1

SP 104

OP 108

AB We report Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) absorption spectroscopy in four methanol (CH3OH) lines in the z = 0.885 82 gravitational lens towards PKS1830-211. Three of the four lines have very different sensitivity coefficients K-mu to changes in the proton-electron mass ratio mu; a comparison between the line redshifts thus allows us to test for temporal evolution in mu. We obtain a stringent statistical constraint on changes in mu by comparing the redshifted 12.179 and 60.531 GHz lines, [Delta mu/mu] <= 1.1 x 10(-7) (2 sigma) over 0 < z <= 0.885 82, a factor of approximate to 2.5 more sensitive than the best earlier results. However, the higher signal-to-noise ratio (by a factor of approximate to 2) of the VLA spectrum in the 12.179 GHz transition also indicates that this line has a different shape from that of the other three CH3OH lines (at >4 sigma significance). The sensitivity of the above result, and that of all earlier CH3OH studies, is thus likely to be limited by unknown systematic errors, probably arising due to the frequency-dependent structure of PKS1830-211. A robust result is obtained by combining the three lines at similar frequencies, 48.372, 48.377 and 60.531 GHz, whose line profiles are found to be in good agreement. This yields the 2 sigma constraint [Delta mu/mu] less than or similar to 4 x 10(-7), the most stringent current constraint on changes in mu. We thus find no evidence for changes in the proton-electron mass ratio over a lookback time of approximate to 7.5 Gyr.

LA eng

DO 10.1093/mnrasl/slu206

LK http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnrasl/slu206

OL 30