# On the Impact of Phase Noise in Communication Systems –- Performance Analysis and Algorithms

[Doktorsavhandling]

The mobile industry is preparing to scale up the network capacity by a factor of 1000x in order to cope with the staggering growth in mobile traffic. As a consequence, there is a tremendous pressure on the network infrastructure, where more cost-effective, flexible, high speed connectivity solutions are being sought for. In this regard, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, and millimeter-wave communication systems are new physical layer technologies, which promise to facilitate the 1000 fold increase in network capacity. However, these technologies are extremely prone to hardware impairments like phase noise caused by noisy oscillators. Furthermore, wireless backhaul networks are an effective solution to transport data by using high-order signal constellations, which are also susceptible to phase noise impairments. Analyzing the performance of wireless communication systems impaired by oscillator phase noise, and designing systems to operate efficiently in strong phase noise conditions are critical problems in communication theory. The criticality of these problems is accentuated with the growing interest in new physical layer technologies, and the deployment of wireless backhaul networks. This forms the main motivation for this thesis where we analyze the impact of phase noise on the system performance, and we also design algorithms in order to mitigate phase noise and its effects. First, we address the problem of maximum a posteriori (MAP) detection of data in the presence of strong phase noise in single-antenna systems. This is achieved by designing a low-complexity joint phase-estimator data-detector. We show that the proposed method outperforms existing detectors, especially when high order signal constellations are used. Then, in order to further improve system performance, we consider the problem of optimizing signal constellations for transmission over channels impaired by phase noise. Specifically, we design signal constellations such that the error rate performance of the system is minimized, and the information rate of the system is maximized. We observe that these optimized constellations significantly improve the system performance, when compared to conventional constellations, and those proposed in the literature. Next, we derive the MAP symbol detector for a MIMO system where each antenna at the transceiver has its own oscillator. We propose three suboptimal, low-complexity algorithms for approximately implementing the MAP symbol detector, which involve joint phase noise estimation and data detection. We observe that the proposed techniques significantly outperform the other algorithms in prior works. Finally, we study the impact of phase noise on the performance of a massive MIMO system, where we analyze both uplink and downlink performances. Based on rigorous analyses of the achievable rates, we provide interesting insights for the following question: how should oscillators be connected to the antennas at a base station, which employs a large number of antennas?

**Nyckelord: **Oscillator, phase noise, maximum likelihood (ML) detection, maximum a posteriori (MAP) detection, extended Kalman filter (EKF), constellations, symbol error probability, mutual information, sum-product algorithm (SPA), factor graph, variational Bayesian method, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), massive MIMO, random matrix theory, free probability.

Denna post skapades 2015-03-06. Senast ändrad 2015-03-23.

CPL Pubid: 213488