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Advances in understanding, models and parameterizations of biosphere-atmosphere ammonia exchange

C. R. Flechard ; R.-S. Massad ; B. Loubet ; E. Personne ; David Simpson (Institutionen för rymd- och geovetenskap, Global miljömätteknik och modellering) ; J. O. Bash ; E. J. Cooter ; E. Nemitz ; M. A. Sutton
Biogeosciences (1726-4170). Vol. 10 (2013), 7, p. 5183-5225.
[Artikel, refereegranskad vetenskaplig]

Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) dominates global emissions of total reactive nitrogen (N-r), while emissions from agricultural production systems contribute about two-thirds of global NH3 emissions; the remaining third emanates from oceans, natural vegetation, humans, wild animals and biomass burning. On land, NH3 emitted from the various sources eventually returns to the biosphere by dry deposition to sink areas, predominantly semi-natural vegetation, and by wet and dry deposition as ammonium (NH4+) to all surfaces. However, the land/atmosphere exchange of gaseous NH3 is in fact bi-directional over unfertilized as well as fertilized ecosystems, with periods and areas of emission and deposition alternating in time (diurnal, seasonal) and space (patchwork landscapes). The exchange is controlled by a range of environmental factors, including meteorology, surface layer turbulence, thermodynamics, air and surface heterogeneous-phase chemistry, canopy geometry, plant development stage, leaf age, organic matter decomposition, soil microbial turnover, and, in agricultural systems, by fertilizer application rate, fertilizer type, soil type, crop type, and agricultural management practices. We review the range of processes controlling NH3 emission and uptake in the different parts of the soil-canopy-atmosphere continuum, with NH3 emission potentials defined at the substrate and leaf levels by different [NH4+] / [H+] ratios (0).

Nyckelord: INTENSIVELY MANAGED GRASSLAND, STOMATAL COMPENSATION POINT, MICROMETEOROLOGICAL FLUX MEASUREMENTS, GRAMINAE INTEGRATED EXPERIMENT, REACTIVE NITROGEN-COMPOUNDS, RELAXED EDDY ACCUMULATION, GAS-PARTICLE INTERACTIONS, FERTILIZED CUT GRASSLAND, GASEOUS DRY DEPOSITION, AIR-QUALITY MODELS



Denna post skapades 2013-10-17. Senast ändrad 2014-02-03.
CPL Pubid: 185348

 

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Institutioner (Chalmers)

Institutionen för rymd- och geovetenskap, Global miljömätteknik och modellering (2010-2017)

Ämnesområden

Hållbar utveckling
Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap

Chalmers infrastruktur