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Magnetotransport characterization of epitaxial graphene on SiC

Författare och institution:
Samuel Lara-Avila (Institutionen för mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap, Kvantkomponentfysik)
Serie:
1) Technical report MC2 - Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, ISSN 1652-0769; nr 224
2) Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. Ny serie, ISSN 0346-718X; nr 3381
ISBN:
978-91-7385-700-0
Antal sidor:
89
Publikationstyp:
Doktorsavhandling
Förlag:
Chalmers University of Technology
Förlagsort:
Göteborg
Publiceringsår:
2012
Språk:
engelska
Datum för examination:
2012-05-28
Tidpunkt för examination:
10:00
Lokal:
Kollektorn (A423)
Opponent:
Prof. Alberto Morpurgo
Sammanfattning (abstract):
Low-temperature magnetotransport is used to characterize graphene grown epitaxially on the silicon face of 4H silicon carbide (SiC/G). Observation of half-integer quantum Hall effect (QHE) in large Hall bars, patterned across several terraces of the SiC substrate, suggest that monolayer graphene grows continuously over defects. Complete characterization was possible using carrier density control technologies developed for SiC/G, including organic dielectrics, photochemical gating and a solid electrolyte. The photochemical gating with organic polymers, achieved by using a spacer layer directly in contact with graphene that protects its integrity, followed by a layer that responds to light, is envisioned as a prototypical architecture for the development of graphene-based sensors. Fine details of electron scattering were found through measurement of quantum corrections to the conductivity of SiC/G, arising from weak localization (WL) and electron-electron interactions (E-E). It was found that scattering is determined by charged impurities under graphene, while the effect of terraces is proposed to manifests as intervalley scattering. The extracted temperature dependence of the decoherence rate allowed to identify E-E interactions and to suggest spin-flip centers as sources of dephasing in the system. The analysis of WL provided an indirect measurement of the spin relaxation time in SiC/G, at the level of 50 ps. Altogether, this work contributed to develop the first application in which graphene outperforms conventional semiconducors, in the field of quantum metrology. The half integer QHE in SiC/G is proposed as standard for electrical resistance to replace GaAs heterostructures. A direct comparison with the QHE in GaAs, the most strict universality test of the QHE ever performed, supports the hypothesis that the electrical resistance is quantized in units of h/e2, with an uncertainty of 0.084 parts per billion. The accuracy of the comparison was limited by the critical current in the GaAs sample, 4 times lower than in the SiC/G sample.
Populärvetenskaplig rubrik (på engelska):
Evaluating the quality of epitaxial graphene with a magnet and a voltmeter
Populärvetenskaplig beskrivning (på engelska):
Graphene is the first two-dimensional material that is available for experiments or applications. It is a crystal made of carbon atoms, only one-atom thin, that until recently could only be extracted from graphite. Obtaining graphene from graphite is a cumbersome process, however, epitaxial growth -heating up of silicon carbide to high temperatures- allows one to obtain graphene on large area. In this work, the quality of epitaxial graphene is studied through magnetotrasport, the motion of electrons in the presence of magnetic fields. Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (SiC/G) opens up the possibility to take graphene out of the scientific playground and to enable the development of graphene-based devices. We have analyzed the quality of epitaxial graphene on SiC using magnetotrasport measurements in this material. The interaction between electrons propagating in SiC/G with the applied magnetic field can be used to assess to characterize this material in terms of carrier type (electrons of holes), mobility and concentration (doping levels). The results of this work contributed to develop the first application in which graphene outperforms conventional semiconductors, in the field of quantum metrology, as standard for electrical resistance.
Ämne (baseras på Högskoleverkets indelning av forskningsämnen):
NATURVETENSKAP ->
Fysik ->
Den kondenserade materiens fysik ->
Ytor och mellanytor
NATURVETENSKAP ->
Fysik ->
Den kondenserade materiens fysik ->
Lågtemperaturfysik
NATURVETENSKAP ->
Fysik ->
Den kondenserade materiens fysik ->
Mesoskopisk fysik
TEKNIK OCH TEKNOLOGIER ->
Materialteknik ->
Annan materialteknik ->
Funktionella material
TEKNIK OCH TEKNOLOGIER ->
Annan teknik ->
Övrig annan teknik ->
Materialfysik med ytfysik
Nyckelord:
epitaxial graphene, magnetotransport, quantum Hall effect, weak localization, many-electron systems, quantum metrology
Chalmers styrkeområden:
Materialvetenskap
Nanovetenskap och nanoteknik
Chalmers forskningsinfrastruktur:
NFL/Myfab (Nanofabrication Laboratory)
Postens nummer:
157226
Posten skapad:
2012-04-30 13:49
Posten ändrad:
2013-09-25 15:19

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