# Optimal Alphabets and Binary Labelings for BICM at Low SNR

**IEEE Transactions on Information Theory**(0018-9448). Vol. 57 (2011), 10, p. 6650-6672.

[Artikel, refereegranskad vetenskaplig]

Optimal binary labelings, input distributions, and input alphabets are analyzed for the so-called bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) capacity, paying special attention to the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. For 8-ary pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and for 0.75 bit/symbol, the folded binary code results in a higher capacity than the binary reflected gray code (BRGC) and the natural binary code (NBC). The 1 dB gap between the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) capacity and the BICM capacity with the BRGC can be almost completely removed if the input symbol distribution is properly selected. First-order asymptotics of the BICM capacity for arbitrary input alphabets and distributions, dimensions, mean, variance, and binary labeling are developed. These asymptotics are used to define first-order optimal (FOO) constellations for BICM, i.e. constellations that make BICM achieve the Shannon limit $-1.59 \tr{dB}$. It is shown that the $\Eb/N_0$ required for reliable transmission at asymptotically low rates in BICM can be as high as infinity, that for uniform input distributions and 8-PAM there are only 72 classes of binary labelings with a different first-order asymptotic behavior, and that this number is reduced to only 26 for 8-ary phase shift keying (PSK). A general answer to the question of FOO constellations for BICM is also given: using the Hadamard transform, it is found that for uniform input distributions, a constellation for BICM is FOO if and only if it is a linear projection of a hypercube. A constellation based on PAM or quadrature amplitude modulation input alphabets is FOO if and only if they are labeled by the NBC; if the constellation is based on PSK input alphabets instead, it can never be FOO if the input alphabet has more than four points, regardless of the labeling.

**Nyckelord: **Average mutual information, binary labeling, bit-interleaved coded modulation, channel capacity, folded binary code, Gray code, Hadamard transform, natural binary code, pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), phase shift keying (PSK), quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), Shannon limit

Denna post skapades 2011-07-06. Senast ändrad 2016-04-28.

CPL Pubid: 143169