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Safeguards: Modelling of the Detection and Characterization of Nuclear Materials

Andreas Enqvist (Institutionen för teknisk fysik, Nukleär teknik)
Göteborg : Chalmers University of Technology, 2010. ISBN: 978-91-7385-356-9.- 164 s.
[Doktorsavhandling]

Nuclear safeguards is a collective term for the tools and methods needed to ensure nonproliferation and safety in connection to utilization of nuclear materials. It encompasses a variety of concepts from legislation to measurement equipment. The objective of this thesis is to present a number of research results related to nuclear materials control and accountability, especially the area of nondestructive assay. Physical aspects of nuclear materials are often the same as for materials encountered in everyday life. One special aspect though is that nuclear materials also emit radiation allowing them to be qualitatively and quantitatively measured without direct interaction with the material. For the successful assay of the material, the particle generation and detection needs to be well understood, and verified with measurements, simulations and models. Four topics of research are included in the thesis. First the generation and multiplication of neutrons and gamma rays in a fissile multiplying sample is treated. The formalism used enables investigation of the number of generated, absorbed and detected particles, offering understanding of the different processes involved. Secondly, the issue of relating the coincident detector signals, generated by both neutrons and gamma rays, to sample parameters is dealt with. Fission rate depends directly on the sample mass, while parameters such as neutron generation by alpha decay and neutron leakage multiplication are parameters that depend on the size, composition and geometry of the sample. Artificial neural networks are utilized to solve the inverse problem of finding sample characteristics from the measured rates of particle multiples. In the third part the interactions between neutrons and organic scintillation detectors are treated. The detector material consists of hydrogen and carbon, on which the neutrons scatter and transfer energy. The problem shares many characteristics with the area of neutron moderation found in reactor physics. Finally the last part of the thesis consists of measurement systems. Measuring coincident neutrons and gamma rays using fast scintillation detectors and data acquisition systems, can enable development of new types of methods for interpreting material signatures.

Nyckelord: nuclear safeguards, master equations, number distribution, multiplicities, ¯ssile material, scintillation detectors, light pulse distribution, cross correlations



Denna post skapades 2010-01-28. Senast ändrad 2014-09-10.
CPL Pubid: 111122