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**Harvard**

Brülls, M. och Rasmuson, A. (2009) *Ice sublimation in vial lyophilization. *.

** BibTeX **

@article{

Brülls2009,

author={Brülls, Mikael and Rasmuson, Anders},

title={Ice sublimation in vial lyophilization. },

journal={Drying Technology},

issn={0737-3937},

volume={27},

issue={5},

pages={695-706},

abstract={Ice sublimation in vial lyophilization was studied experimentally and theoretically. A theoretical dynamic and two-dimensional axisymmetric model that comprised both the vial and its content was developed. The model included the curvature of the bottom of the vial, the temperature of the ice surface as a function of the chamber pressure, and physical models for the heat of sublimation, thermal conductivity of gases at low pressure, thermal conduction, and thermal radiation. The coefficients in the model were based on physical constants, except for vials on the periphery of the shelf, where an overall heat transfer coefficient derived from experimental data was used to model the transport of heat from the walls of the freeze dryer. The study demonstrated that the sublimation was, apart from the shelf temperature and the chamber pressure, also influenced by the curvature of the bottom of the vial, the position on the shelf, and the atmosphere in the freeze dryer.},

year={2009},

keywords={Freeze drying; Ice sublimation; Lyophilization; Mathematical model; Simulation; Vial},

}

** RefWorks **

RT Journal Article

SR Print

ID 104003

A1 Brülls, Mikael

A1 Rasmuson, Anders

T1 Ice sublimation in vial lyophilization.

YR 2009

JF Drying Technology

SN 0737-3937

VO 27

IS 5

SP 695

OP 706

AB Ice sublimation in vial lyophilization was studied experimentally and theoretically. A theoretical dynamic and two-dimensional axisymmetric model that comprised both the vial and its content was developed. The model included the curvature of the bottom of the vial, the temperature of the ice surface as a function of the chamber pressure, and physical models for the heat of sublimation, thermal conductivity of gases at low pressure, thermal conduction, and thermal radiation. The coefficients in the model were based on physical constants, except for vials on the periphery of the shelf, where an overall heat transfer coefficient derived from experimental data was used to model the transport of heat from the walls of the freeze dryer. The study demonstrated that the sublimation was, apart from the shelf temperature and the chamber pressure, also influenced by the curvature of the bottom of the vial, the position on the shelf, and the atmosphere in the freeze dryer.

LA eng

DO 10.1080/07373930902827676

OL 30